LDL - Cholesterol

What is LDL?

LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. It’s a type of lipoprotein found in your blood. Lipoproteins are particles made of lipids (fats) and proteins that carry fats through your bloodstream. Fats, because of their structure, can’t move through your blood on their own. So, lipoproteins serve as vehicles that carry fats to various cells in your body. LDL particles contain a large amount of cholesterol and a smaller amount of proteins. from :https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/24391-ldl-cholesterol


https://www.everydayhealth.com/high-cholesterol/living-with/experts-how-does-stress-contribute-to-cholesterol/#:~:text=(good)%20cholesterol.-,Dr.,triglyceride%20levels%20tend%20to%20be. “Dr. Raja R. Gopaldas: In modern-day life, stress is inevitable. Job stress, getting to work, and taking care of the family all contribute to stress. How we manage stress is important. There is no doubt that a constant state of emotional stress is directly linked with high cholesterol levels. Being happy is a fundamental requirement for every human being - so avoid circumstances that make you unhappy! A daily meditation schedule of 15 to 20 minutes will help relieve stress, and 45 minutes of vigorous exercises (get your heart rate over 120) three times a week will help lower anxiety levels and stress. Ensuring that you get adequate sleep - about six to eight hours daily (no more or no less - both are detrimental) is important for everyone.”

https://www.webmd.com/cholesterol-management/stress-cholesterol-link “If high levels of stress are part of your daily life, you are at risk for high cholesterol, according to research.

  • In a large study of more than 91,500 adults in different professions, job-related stress was linked to high cholesterol, including high LDL and low HDL cholesterol. People with high work stress were also more likely to take cholesterol medicine.
  • In a study of law enforcement officers from Iowa, women had more stress and higher rates of high cholesterol and diabetes than male officers, as well as other women in the state. Female officers who had high stress also tended to be overweight or obese, and 77% of them pointed to their stress as a major reason for their health problems.
  • In another study of 439 bus, truck, or taxi drivers, those with high levels of work-related stress were more likely to have high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high blood pressure.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27739167/Results: Genetic evidence demonstrates that individuals with naturally very low LDL-C levels are healthy and have a low risk of CVD. Clinical evidence has shown that those patients who achieve very low LDL-C levels through using lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs), such as statins, have reduced CVD risk compared with patients who only just achieve recommended target LDL-C levels. These data show that the incidence of adverse events in patients achieving very low LDL-C levels using LLT is comparable to those reaching the recommended LDL-C targets. Conclusions: Genetic and clinical evidence supports the concept that reduction in LDL-C levels below current recommended targets may provide additional clinical benefit to patients without adversely impacting patient safety. Statin add-on therapies, such as ezetimibe and the recently approved proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors alirocumab and evolocumab, allow patients to achieve very low LDL-C levels and are likely to impact on future treatment paradigms.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33670170/Conclusion: Our study reported that total dairy food consumption was not correlated with LDL-C blood levels. However, multivariate analyses showed an inverse association between serum LDL-C and milk intake as well as a positive association between ricotta cheese intake and LDL-C concentrations. More studies are needed to better characterize the relationship between dairy products and circulating LDL-C.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30466440/Results: The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30295187/Conclusion: Achieving an LDL-C of 40-50 mg/dl seems to be safe, and importantly might offer CV beneficial effects. Data for attaining levels below 25 mg/dl is limited, however in favor of such reductions.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37434791/ “Multiple lines of evidence confirm that the cumulative burden of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is causally related to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). As such, lowering LDL-C is a central tenet in all ASCVD prevention guidelines, which recommend matching the intensity of LDL-C lowering with the absolute risk of the patient.”

What foods cause high LDL cholesterol? Foods that contain high amounts of saturated fat are the biggest culprits in raising your LDL cholesterol. Such foods include:

  • Bakery items, like doughnuts, cookies and cake.
  • Full-fat dairy products, like whole milk, cheese and butter.
  • Red meats, like steak, ribs, pork chops and ground beef.
  • Processed meats, like bacon, hot dogs and sausage.
  • Fried foods, like French fries and fried chicken. From: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/24391-ldl-cholesterol
Last modified October 25, 2023: Page Update (008c3c3)